When stringify doesn't return a string

, updated (originally posted )

This post is for developers who are familiar with JavaScript’s JSON.stringify.

JSON.stringify is an often-used part of JavaScript’s standard library. As its name suggests, it converts JavaScript values and objects to strings. For example:

JSON.stringify({ foo: "bar" });
// => '{"foo":"bar"}'

// => '123'

But many parts of JavaScript have gotchas, and this function is no exception. You might imagine a function called “stringify” to always return a string…but it doesn’t!

For example, if you try to stringify undefined, it returns undefined—not a string!

// => undefined

I’ve broken this post into two parts. In part 1, we’ll enumerate the cases where JSON.stringify doesn’t return a string. In part 2, we’ll talk about how to avoid these pitfalls.

When doesn’t stringify return a string?

In short: it returns undefined if serializing undefined, a function, or a symbol at the top level. It throws errors if trying to serialize circular references or BigInts. There are also a few other edge cases. TypeScript doesn’t help us here.

When it returns undefined

I think it’s surprising that JSON.stringify can ever return anything other than a string. But it can return undefined in 6 cases:

  1. Trying to serialize undefined at the top level returns undefined.

    // => undefined
  2. Trying to serialize functions also returns undefined. This is true for “regular” functions, arrow functions, async functions, and generator functions. It’s even true for functions that have properties dangling off of them.

    JSON.stringify(function foo() {});
    // => undefined
    JSON.stringify(() => {});
    // => undefined
    function bar() {}
    bar.someProperty = 123;
    // => undefined
  3. Trying to serialize symbols also returns undefined.

    JSON.stringify(Symbol("computers were a mistake"));
    // => undefined
  4. In browsers, trying to serialize the deprecated document.all also returns undefined. (Thanks to senocular on Reddit for pointing this out!)

    // => undefined

    This only affects browsers because document.all is not available in other environments, such as Node.

  5. Objects with a toJSON function will be run instead of trying to serialize them normally. But if toJSON returns one of the values above, trying to serialize it at the top level will cause JSON.stringify to return undefined.

    JSON.stringify({ toJSON: () => undefined });
    // => undefined
    JSON.stringify({ ignored: true, toJSON: () => undefined });
    // => undefined
    JSON.stringify({ toJSON: () => Symbol("heya") });
    // => undefined
  6. You can pass a second argument, called the “replacer”, which changes the serialization logic. If this function returns one of the values above for the top level, JSON.stringify will return undefined. (As an aside, I’ve never seen the replacer argument used outside of documentation.)

    JSON.stringify({ ignored: true }, () => undefined);
    // => undefined
    JSON.stringify(["ignored"], () => Symbol("hello"));
    // => undefined

Note that many of these really only affect serialization at the top level. For example, JSON.stringify({foo: undefined}), returns the string "{}", which is less surprising.

I also want to mention that TypeScript’s type definitions are incorrect here. For example, the following code snippet compiles just fine:

// This shouldn't work, but it does!
const result: string = JSON.stringify(undefined);

TypeScript tried to address this, but the fix was reverted.

In part 2, we’ll discuss how to update TypeScript’s definitions for correctness.

When it throws an error instead

JSON.stringify can also run into problems which can cause it to throw an error. There are four times this can happen under normal conditions:

  1. Circular references cause a TypeError to be thrown.

    const a = {};
    const b = { a };
    a.b = b;
    // => TypeError: cyclic object value

    (Note that these error messages might look slightly different depending on where you’re running this. For example, Firefox’s error message is different from Chrome’s.)

  2. BigInts cannot be serialized with JSON.parse. These also cause a TypeError.

    // => TypeError: BigInt value can't be serialized in JSON
    JSON.stringify({ foo: 456n });
    // => TypeError: BigInt value can't be serialized in JSON
  3. Objects with a toJSON function will be run. If those functions throw an error, that will bubble up to the caller.

    const obj = {
      foo: "ignored",
      toJSON() {
        throw new Error("Oh no!");
    // => Error: Oh no!
  4. You can pass a second argument, called the “replacer”. If this function throws an error, it will bubble up.

    JSON.stringify({}, () => {
      throw new Error("Uh oh!");
    // => Error: Uh oh!

Personally, I don’t think these are too surprising—lots of stuff in JavaScript throws errors. But these are cases where it doesn’t return a string.

Now that we’ve seen when JSON.stringify doesn’t return a string, let’s talk about what we can do to avoid the problems.

How to avoid the pitfalls

There’s no generic advice about how to address these pitfalls, so I’ll cover a few common cases.

Handle circular references

From my personal experience, JSON.stringify is most likely to throw an errors when passed circular references.

If this is a common issue for you, I recommend the json-stringify-safe package, which handles this case well.

const stringifySafe = require("json-stringify-safe");

const a = {};
const b = { a };
a.b = b;

// => TypeError: cyclic object value

// => '{"b":{"a":"[Circular ~]"}}'

Wrap it

You may want to wrap JSON.stringify with your own custom function. You can decide what you want it to do. Should errors bubble up? What should happen if JSON.stringify returns undefined?

For example, Signal Desktop has a function called reallyJsonStringify that always returns a string for debugging, no matter what. It looks like this:

// Note: this is modified slightly from the original source.
function reallyJsonStringify(value) {
  let result;
  try {
    result = JSON.stringify(value);
  } catch (_err) {
    // If there's any error, treat it like `undefined`.
    result = undefined;

  if (typeof result === "string") {
    // It's a string, so we're good.
    return result;
  } else {
    // Convert it to a string.
    return Object.prototype.toString.call(value);

Again, you can decide how you want your wrapper to work.

A note on TypeScript’s types

If you’re a TypeScript user, you might be surprised to know that TypeScript’s official definitions for JSON.stringify are incorrect here. They effectively look like this:

// Note: this is simplified.
interface JSON {
  // ...
  stringify(value: any): string;

Unfortunately, this is a long-standing issue without a perfect solution.

You can try to patch JSON.stringify’s types, but every solution has drawbacks in some way. I would recommend defining your own wrapper with custom types and using that. For example, here’s what Signal Desktop’s reallyJsonStringify looks like:

function reallyJsonStringify(value: unknown): string {
  // ...


In summary:

I hope this post helped you learn about another one of JavaScript’s quirks!